Researchers have uncovered a beforehand unknown species of historical jellyfish that lived greater than 500 million years in the past.
The now-extinct creature is the oldest swimming jellyfish found thus far and sheds mild on the evolutionary historical past of those animals, in line with a research Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
Jellyfish are thought to be a few of the oldest animals ever to have existed. However as a result of their tender our bodies are liable to decay, this can be very troublesome for them to turn into fossilized. Because of this, their evolutionary historical past stays largely hypothetical.
However within the newest research, a group of researchers describes a brand new species, named Burgessomedusa phasmiformis—an exceptionally well-preserved massive jellyfish dated to the center of the Cambrian Interval round 505 million years in the past.
Researchers described the brand new species from greater than 170 fossil specimens discovered within the Burgess Shale—a geological formation within the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia.
“It is without doubt one of the best-preserved fossil jellyfish in all the historical past of this group of animals,” Jean-Bernard Caron, a paleontologist and creator of the research from the College of Toronto, Canada, instructed Newsweek.
Most jellyfish fossils uncovered thus far are merely imprints of the animals, that means that the specimens themselves will not be preserved. Just a few particulars of anatomy may be gathered from such imprints, and due to this fact, such fossils can not present a lot details about the evolutionary historical past or ecology of those animals.
“The physique of a jellyfish is stuffed with water; for this reason it’s so arduous to see these animals when diving, and it’s due to this fact little shock that fossilized jellyfish are extraordinarily uncommon!” Caron mentioned.
The most recent research examined fossils that had been principally discovered within the late Nineteen Eighties and Nineties by researchers with the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. The fossils had been being saved within the museum’s collections however had by no means formally described till the latest analysis was carried out.
Scientists nonetheless have no idea for certain how and why these jellyfish fossils had been so preserved so effectively on the Burgess Shale. The formation, which was as soon as underwater, is wealthy in fossils from the mid-Cambrian, together with many with tender physique elements preserved.
“These fossils actually spotlight the distinctive circumstances for soft-tissue preservation that the Burgess Shale is already well-known for,” Caron mentioned. “I’d even say that this can be a new excessive for the Burgess Shale with these fossils pushing the bounds of what may be preserved at that web site.”
The jellyfish that the scientists documented are typically bell-shaped, however some box-like and different intermediate varieties additionally seem, demonstrating the flexibleness within the physique of those animals.
The specimens fluctuate in measurement from slightly below one inch to virtually eight inches in size, in line with Caron.
“Contemplating that almost all animals on the Burgess Shale are smaller than an grownup finger, the most important jellyfish specimens had been giants in comparison with different organisms residing on the similar time within the Burgess Shale group,” he mentioned.
Exceptional particulars have additionally been preserved within the fossils. For instance, the jellyfish have greater than 90, quick, finger-like tentacles throughout the margin of the bell. The mouth is situated on the finish of a protracted construction throughout the bell, which is related to a big abdomen cavity. Some specimens additionally show 4 elongated gonads situated inside and alongside the bell.
The proof signifies that Burgessomedusa would have been able to free-swimming, whereas the presence of tentacles means that it may seize sizeable prey.
“This discovery means that the Cambrian food-web was extra complicated than beforehand thought, with this new jellyfish being one of many largest predators identified throughout that point”
Jellyfish belong to an animal group often known as medusozoans, which incorporates at this time’s true jellyfish, field jellyfish, hydrozoans, and stalked jellyfish. Medusozoans, in flip, type half of a bigger group often known as Cnidaria, which additionally contains corals and sea anemones.
Cnidarians have complicated life cycles which will contain two principal physique varieties: a vase-shaped physique type often known as a polyp, and a bell- or saucer-shaped physique known as the medusa—the standard physique type of a jellyfish. The medusa, which is the reproductive stage, may be free-swimming. Some members of Cnidaria solely exhibit the polyp physique type, however others cycle by each phases.
Whereas fossilized polyps have beforehand been present in rocks dated to round 560-million-years-ago—even sooner than the Burgessomedusa fossils—the origin of free-swimming medusa, or jellyfish, isn’t effectively understood.
The jellyfish fossil report is controversial, in line with Caron. Earlier than the invention of Burgessomedusa, the oldest printed jellyfish physique fossil was a fragmentary and poorly preserved specimen from the 518-million-year-old Chengjiang deposit in China.
However within the newest research, the authors reinterpret this specimen as a sort of comb jelly. Whereas comb jellies superficially resemble jellyfish from the Cnidaria group, they really belong to a separate department of animals often known as Ctenophora.
Older microscopic fossils thought to symbolize medusa from 535 million years in the past are already identified, however it’s possible that they weren’t able to swimming.
Because of this, Burgessomedusa represents the oldest unambiguous, large-scale swimming jellyfish within the fossil report, the researchers mentioned.
“The important thing time period right here is ‘swimming,'” Caron mentioned. “This discovery reveals that a big swimming jellyfish life-stage had already developed by the center Cambrian interval within the group known as medusozoans.”
“Discovering such extremely delicate animals preserved in rock layers on prime of those mountains is such a wondrous discovery. These jellyfish had been environment friendly swimming predators. This provides yet one more exceptional lineage of animals that the Burgess Shale has preserved chronicling the evolution of life on Earth,” Caron mentioned in an announcement.